DrupalWebTestCase

  1. drupal
    1. 6 contributions/simpletest/drupal_web_test_case.php
    2. 7 contributions/simpletest/drupal_web_test_case.php
    3. 7 drupal/modules/simpletest/drupal_web_test_case.php

Test case for typical Drupal tests.

Hierarchy

Properties

NameDescription
DrupalTestCase::$assertionsAssertions thrown in that test case.
DrupalTestCase::$databasePrefixThe database prefix of this test run.
DrupalTestCase::$originalFileDirectoryThe original file directory, before it was changed for testing purposes.
DrupalTestCase::$originalPrefixThe original database prefix, before it was changed for testing purposes.
DrupalTestCase::$resultsCurrent results of this test case.
DrupalTestCase::$skipClassesThis class is skipped when looking for the source of an assertion.
DrupalTestCase::$testIdThe test run ID.
DrupalTestCase::$timeLimitTime limit for the test.
DrupalWebTestCase::$additionalCurlOptionsAdditional cURL options.
DrupalWebTestCase::$contentThe content of the page currently loaded in the internal browser.
DrupalWebTestCase::$cookieFileThe current cookie file used by cURL.
DrupalWebTestCase::$curlHandleThe handle of the current cURL connection.
DrupalWebTestCase::$drupalSettingsThe value of the Drupal.settings JavaScript variable for the page currently loaded in the internal browser.
DrupalWebTestCase::$elementsThe parsed version of the page.
DrupalWebTestCase::$generatedTestFilesWhether the files were copied to the test files directory.
DrupalWebTestCase::$headersThe headers of the page currently loaded in the internal browser.
DrupalWebTestCase::$httpauth_credentialsHTTP authentication credentials (<username>:<password>).
DrupalWebTestCase::$httpauth_methodHTTP authentication method
DrupalWebTestCase::$loggedInUserThe current user logged in using the internal browser.
DrupalWebTestCase::$originalUserThe original user, before it was changed to a clean uid = 1 for testing purposes.
DrupalWebTestCase::$plainTextContentThe content of the page currently loaded in the internal browser (plain text version).
DrupalWebTestCase::$profileThe profile to install as a basis for testing.
DrupalWebTestCase::$redirect_countThe number of redirects followed during the handling of a request.
DrupalWebTestCase::$session_idThe current session ID, if available.
DrupalWebTestCase::$session_nameThe current session name, if available.
DrupalWebTestCase::$urlThe URL currently loaded in the internal browser.

Functions & methods

NameDescription
DrupalTestCase::assertInternal helper: stores the assert.
DrupalTestCase::assertEqualCheck to see if two values are equal.
DrupalTestCase::assertFalseCheck to see if a value is false (an empty string, 0, NULL, or FALSE).
DrupalTestCase::assertIdenticalCheck to see if two values are identical.
DrupalTestCase::assertNotEqualCheck to see if two values are not equal.
DrupalTestCase::assertNotIdenticalCheck to see if two values are not identical.
DrupalTestCase::assertNotNullCheck to see if a value is not NULL.
DrupalTestCase::assertNullCheck to see if a value is NULL.
DrupalTestCase::assertTrueCheck to see if a value is not false (not an empty string, 0, NULL, or FALSE).
DrupalTestCase::deleteAssertDelete an assertion record by message ID.
DrupalTestCase::errorFire an error assertion.
DrupalTestCase::errorHandlerHandle errors during test runs.
DrupalTestCase::exceptionHandlerHandle exceptions.
DrupalTestCase::failFire an assertion that is always negative.
DrupalTestCase::generatePermutationsConverts a list of possible parameters into a stack of permutations.
DrupalTestCase::getAssertionCallCycles through backtrace until the first non-assertion method is found.
DrupalTestCase::insertAssertStore an assertion from outside the testing context.
DrupalTestCase::passFire an assertion that is always positive.
DrupalTestCase::randomNameGenerates a random string containing letters and numbers.
DrupalTestCase::randomStringGenerates a random string of ASCII characters of codes 32 to 126.
DrupalTestCase::runRun all tests in this class.
DrupalTestCase::verboseLogs verbose message in a text file.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertFieldAsserts that a field exists with the given name or id.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertFieldByIdAsserts that a field exists in the current page with the given id and value.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertFieldByNameAsserts that a field exists in the current page with the given name and value.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertFieldByXPathAsserts that a field exists in the current page by the given XPath.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertFieldCheckedAsserts that a checkbox field in the current page is checked.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertLinkPass if a link with the specified label is found, and optional with the specified index.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertLinkByHrefPass if a link containing a given href (part) is found.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertMailAsserts that the most recently sent e-mail message has the given value.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertMailPatternAsserts that the most recently sent e-mail message has the pattern in it.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertMailStringAsserts that the most recently sent e-mail message has the string in it.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertNoDuplicateIdsAsserts that each HTML ID is used for just a single element.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertNoFieldAsserts that a field does not exist with the given name or id.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertNoFieldByIdAsserts that a field does not exist with the given id and value.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertNoFieldByNameAsserts that a field does not exist with the given name and value.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertNoFieldByXPathAsserts that a field does not exist in the current page by the given XPath.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertNoFieldCheckedAsserts that a checkbox field in the current page is not checked.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertNoLinkPass if a link with the specified label is not found.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertNoLinkByHrefPass if a link containing a given href (part) is not found.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertNoOptionSelectedAsserts that a select option in the current page is not checked.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertNoPatternWill trigger a pass if the perl regex pattern is not present in raw content.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertNoRawPass if the raw text is NOT found on the loaded page, fail otherwise. Raw text refers to the raw HTML that the page generated.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertNoResponseAsserts the page did not return the specified response code.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertNoTextPass if the text is NOT found on the text version of the page. The text version is the equivalent of what a user would see when viewing through a web browser. In other words the HTML has been filtered out of the contents.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertNoTitlePass if the page title is not the given string.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertNoUniqueTextPass if the text is found MORE THAN ONCE on the text version of the page.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertOptionSelectedAsserts that a select option in the current page is checked.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertPatternWill trigger a pass if the Perl regex pattern is found in the raw content.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertRawPass if the raw text IS found on the loaded page, fail otherwise. Raw text refers to the raw HTML that the page generated.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertResponseAsserts the page responds with the specified response code.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertTextPass if the text IS found on the text version of the page. The text version is the equivalent of what a user would see when viewing through a web browser. In other words the HTML has been filtered out of the contents.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertTextHelperHelper for assertText and assertNoText.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertTitlePass if the page title is the given string.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertUniqueTextPass if the text is found ONLY ONCE on the text version of the page.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertUniqueTextHelperHelper for assertUniqueText and assertNoUniqueText.
DrupalWebTestCase::assertUrlPass if the internal browser's URL matches the given path.
DrupalWebTestCase::buildXPathQueryBuilds an XPath query.
DrupalWebTestCase::checkForMetaRefreshCheck for meta refresh tag and if found call drupalGet() recursively. This function looks for the http-equiv attribute to be set to "Refresh" and is case-sensitive.
DrupalWebTestCase::checkPermissionsCheck to make sure that the array of permissions are valid.
DrupalWebTestCase::clickLinkFollows a link by name.
DrupalWebTestCase::constructFieldXpathHelper function: construct an XPath for the given set of attributes and value.
DrupalWebTestCase::cronRunRuns cron in the Drupal installed by Simpletest.
DrupalWebTestCase::curlCloseClose the cURL handler and unset the handler.
DrupalWebTestCase::curlExecInitializes and executes a cURL request.
DrupalWebTestCase::curlHeaderCallbackReads headers and registers errors received from the tested site.
DrupalWebTestCase::curlInitializeInitializes the cURL connection.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalCompareFilesCompare two files based on size and file name.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalCreateContentTypeCreates a custom content type based on default settings.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalCreateNodeCreates a node based on default settings.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalCreateRoleInternal helper function; Create a role with specified permissions.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalCreateUserCreate a user with a given set of permissions. The permissions correspond to the names given on the privileges page.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalGetRetrieves a Drupal path or an absolute path.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalGetContentGets the current raw HTML of requested page.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalGetHeaderGets the value of an HTTP response header. If multiple requests were required to retrieve the page, only the headers from the last request will be checked by default. However, if TRUE is passed as the second argument, all requests will be processed…
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalGetHeadersGets the HTTP response headers of the requested page. Normally we are only interested in the headers returned by the last request. However, if a page is redirected or HTTP authentication is in use, multiple requests will be required to retrieve the…
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalGetMailsGets an array containing all e-mails sent during this test case.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalGetNodeByTitleGet a node from the database based on its title.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalGetSettingsGets the value of the Drupal.settings JavaScript variable for the currently loaded page.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalGetTestFilesGet a list files that can be used in tests.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalGetTokenGenerate a token for the currently logged in user.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalHeadRetrieves only the headers for a Drupal path or an absolute path.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalLoginLog in a user with the internal browser.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalLogout
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalPostExecute a POST request on a Drupal page. It will be done as usual POST request with SimpleBrowser.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalSetContentSets the raw HTML content. This can be useful when a page has been fetched outside of the internal browser and assertions need to be made on the returned page.
DrupalWebTestCase::drupalSetSettingsSets the value of the Drupal.settings JavaScript variable for the currently loaded page.
DrupalWebTestCase::getAbsoluteUrlTakes a path and returns an absolute path.
DrupalWebTestCase::getAllOptionsGet all option elements, including nested options, in a select.
DrupalWebTestCase::getSelectedItemGet the selected value from a select field.
DrupalWebTestCase::getUrlGet the current url from the cURL handler.
DrupalWebTestCase::handleFormHandle form input related to drupalPost(). Ensure that the specified fields exist and attempt to create POST data in the correct manner for the particular field type.
DrupalWebTestCase::parseParse content returned from curlExec using DOM and SimpleXML.
DrupalWebTestCase::refreshVariablesRefresh the in-memory set of variables. Useful after a page request is made that changes a variable in a different thread.
DrupalWebTestCase::resetAllReset all data structures after having enabled new modules.
DrupalWebTestCase::setUpGenerates a random database prefix, runs the install scripts on the prefixed database and enable the specified modules. After installation many caches are flushed and the internal browser is setup so that the page requests will run on the new prefix.…
DrupalWebTestCase::tearDownDelete created files and temporary files directory, delete the tables created by setUp(), and reset the database prefix.
DrupalWebTestCase::verboseEmailOutputs to verbose the most recent $count emails sent.
DrupalWebTestCase::xpathPerform an xpath search on the contents of the internal browser. The search is relative to the root element (HTML tag normally) of the page.
DrupalWebTestCase::__constructConstructor for DrupalWebTestCase. Overrides DrupalTestCase::__construct

File

contributions/simpletest/drupal_web_test_case.php, line 709

View source
class DrupalWebTestCase extends DrupalTestCase {
  /**
   * The profile to install as a basis for testing.
   *
   * @var string
   */
  protected $profile = 'default';

  /**
   * The URL currently loaded in the internal browser.
   *
   * @var string
   */
  protected $url;

  /**
   * The handle of the current cURL connection.
   *
   * @var resource
   */
  protected $curlHandle;

  /**
   * The headers of the page currently loaded in the internal browser.
   *
   * @var Array
   */
  protected $headers;

  /**
   * The content of the page currently loaded in the internal browser.
   *
   * @var string
   */
  protected $content;

  /**
   * The content of the page currently loaded in the internal browser (plain text version).
   *
   * @var string
   */
  protected $plainTextContent;

  /**
   * The value of the Drupal.settings JavaScript variable for the page currently loaded in the internal browser.
   *
   * @var Array
   */
  protected $drupalSettings;

  /**
   * The parsed version of the page.
   *
   * @var SimpleXMLElement
   */
  protected $elements = NULL;

  /**
   * The current user logged in using the internal browser.
   *
   * @var bool
   */
  protected $loggedInUser = FALSE;

  /**
   * The current cookie file used by cURL.
   *
   * We do not reuse the cookies in further runs, so we do not need a file
   * but we still need cookie handling, so we set the jar to NULL.
   */
  protected $cookieFile = NULL;

  /**
   * Additional cURL options.
   *
   * DrupalWebTestCase itself never sets this but always obeys what is set.
   */
  protected $additionalCurlOptions = array();

  /**
   * The original user, before it was changed to a clean uid = 1 for testing purposes.
   *
   * @var object
   */
  protected $originalUser = NULL;

  /**
   * HTTP authentication method
   */
  protected $httpauth_method = CURLAUTH_BASIC;

  /**
   * HTTP authentication credentials (<username>:<password>).
   */
  protected $httpauth_credentials = NULL;

  /**
   * The current session name, if available.
   */
  protected $session_name = NULL;

  /**
   * The current session ID, if available.
   */
  protected $session_id = NULL;

  /**
   * Whether the files were copied to the test files directory.
   */
  protected $generatedTestFiles = FALSE;

  /**
   * The number of redirects followed during the handling of a request.
   */
  protected $redirect_count;

  /**
   * Constructor for DrupalWebTestCase.
   */
  function __construct($test_id = NULL) {
    parent::__construct($test_id);
    $this->skipClasses[__CLASS__] = TRUE;
  }

  /**
   * Get a node from the database based on its title.
   *
   * @param title
   *   A node title, usually generated by $this->randomName().
   *
   * @return
   *   A node object matching $title.
   */
  function drupalGetNodeByTitle($title) {
    return node_load(array('title' => $title));
  }

  /**
   * Creates a node based on default settings.
   *
   * @param $settings
   *   An associative array of settings to change from the defaults, keys are
   *   node properties, for example 'title' => 'Hello, world!'.
   * @return
   *   Created node object.
   */
  protected function drupalCreateNode($settings = array()) {
    // Populate defaults array.
    $settings += array(
      'body' => $this->randomName(32), 
      'format' => FILTER_FORMAT_DEFAULT, 
      'title' => $this->randomName(8), 
      'comment' => 2, 
      'changed' => time(), 
      'moderate' => 0, 
      'promote' => 0, 
      'revision' => 1, 
      'log' => '', 
      'status' => 1, 
      'sticky' => 0, 
      'type' => 'page', 
      'revisions' => NULL, 
      'language' => '',
    );

    // Use the original node's created time for existing nodes.
    if (isset($settings['created']) && !isset($settings['date'])) {
      $settings['date'] = format_date($settings['created'], 'custom', 'Y-m-d H:i:s O');
    }

    // If the node's user uid is not specified manually, use the currently
    // logged in user if available, or else the user running the test.
    if (!isset($settings['uid'])) {
      if ($this->loggedInUser) {
        $settings['uid'] = $this->loggedInUser->uid;
      }
      else {
        global $user;
        $settings['uid'] = $user->uid;
      }
    }

    $node = (object) $settings;
    node_save($node);

    // Small hack to link revisions to our test user.
    db_query('UPDATE {node_revisions} SET uid = %d WHERE vid = %d', $node->uid, $node->vid);
    return $node;
  }

  /**
   * Creates a custom content type based on default settings.
   *
   * @param $settings
   *   An array of settings to change from the defaults.
   *   Example: 'type' => 'foo'.
   * @return
   *   Created content type.
   */
  protected function drupalCreateContentType($settings = array()) {
    // Find a non-existent random type name.
    do {
      $name = strtolower($this->randomName(8));
    } while (node_get_types('type', $name));

    // Populate defaults array.
    $defaults = array(
      'type' => $name, 
      'name' => $name, 
      'description' => '', 
      'help' => '', 
      'min_word_count' => 0, 
      'title_label' => 'Title', 
      'body_label' => 'Body', 
      'has_title' => 1, 
      'has_body' => 1,
    );
    // Imposed values for a custom type.
    $forced = array(
      'orig_type' => '', 
      'old_type' => '', 
      'module' => 'node', 
      'custom' => 1, 
      'modified' => 1, 
      'locked' => 0,
    );
    $type = $forced + $settings + $defaults;
    $type = (object) $type;

    $saved_type = node_type_save($type);
    node_types_rebuild();
    menu_rebuild();

    $this->assertEqual($saved_type, SAVED_NEW, t('Created content type %type.', array('%type' => $type->type)));

    // Reset permissions so that permissions for this content type are available.
    $this->checkPermissions(array(), TRUE);

    return $type;
  }

  /**
   * Get a list files that can be used in tests.
   *
   * @param $type
   *   File type, possible values: 'binary', 'html', 'image', 'javascript', 'php', 'sql', 'text'.
   * @param $size
   *   File size in bytes to match. Please check the tests/files folder.
   * @return
   *   List of files that match filter.
   */
  protected function drupalGetTestFiles($type, $size = NULL) {
    if (empty($this->generatedTestFiles)) {
      // Generate binary test files.
      $lines = array(64, 1024);
      $count = 0;
      foreach ($lines as $line) {
        simpletest_generate_file('binary-' . $count++, 64, $line, 'binary');
      }

      // Generate text test files.
      $lines = array(16, 256, 1024, 2048, 20480);
      $count = 0;
      foreach ($lines as $line) {
        simpletest_generate_file('text-' . $count++, 64, $line);
      }

      // Copy other test files from simpletest.
      $original = drupal_get_path('module', 'simpletest') . '/files';
      $files = file_scan_directory($original, '(html|image|javascript|php|sql)-.*');
      foreach ($files as $file) {
        file_copy($file->filename, variable_get('file_directory_path', conf_path() . '/files'));
      }

      $this->generatedTestFiles = TRUE;
    }

    $files = array();
    // Make sure type is valid.
    if (in_array($type, array('binary', 'html', 'image', 'javascript', 'php', 'sql', 'text'))) {
      $files = file_scan_directory(variable_get('file_directory_path', conf_path() . '/files'), $type . '\-.*');

      // If size is set then remove any files that are not of that size.
      if ($size !== NULL) {
        foreach ($files as $file) {
          $stats = stat($file->filename);
          if ($stats['size'] != $size) {
            unset($files[$file->filename]);
          }
        }
      }
    }
    usort($files, array($this, 'drupalCompareFiles'));
    return $files;
  }

  /**
   * Compare two files based on size and file name.
   */
  protected function drupalCompareFiles($file1, $file2) {
    $compare_size = filesize($file1->filename) - filesize($file2->filename);
    if ($compare_size) {
      // Sort by file size.
      return $compare_size;
    }
    else {
      // The files were the same size, so sort alphabetically.
      return strnatcmp($file1->name, $file2->name);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Create a user with a given set of permissions. The permissions correspond to the
   * names given on the privileges page.
   *
   * @param $permissions
   *   Array of permission names to assign to user.
   * @return
   *   A fully loaded user object with pass_raw property, or FALSE if account
   *   creation fails.
   */
  protected function drupalCreateUser($permissions = array('access comments', 'access content', 'post comments', 'post comments without approval')) {
    // Create a role with the given permission set.
    if (!($rid = $this->drupalCreateRole($permissions))) {
      return FALSE;
    }

    // Create a user assigned to that role.
    $edit = array();
    $edit['name']   = $this->randomName();
    $edit['mail']   = $edit['name'] . '@example.com';
    $edit['roles']  = array($rid => $rid);
    $edit['pass']   = user_password();
    $edit['status'] = 1;

    $account = user_save('', $edit);

    $this->assertTrue(!empty($account->uid), t('User created with name %name and pass %pass', array('%name' => $edit['name'], '%pass' => $edit['pass'])), t('User login'));
    if (empty($account->uid)) {
      return FALSE;
    }

    // Add the raw password so that we can log in as this user.
    $account->pass_raw = $edit['pass'];
    return $account;
  }

  /**
   * Internal helper function; Create a role with specified permissions.
   *
   * @param $permissions
   *   Array of permission names to assign to role.
   * @param $name
   *   (optional) String for the name of the role.  Defaults to a random string.
   * @return
   *   Role ID of newly created role, or FALSE if role creation failed.
   */
  protected function drupalCreateRole(array $permissions, $name = NULL) {
    // Generate random name if it was not passed.
    if (!$name) {
      $name = $this->randomName();
    }

    // Check the all the permissions strings are valid.
    if (!$this->checkPermissions($permissions)) {
      return FALSE;
    }

    // Create new role.
    db_query("INSERT INTO {role} (name) VALUES ('%s')", $name);
    $role = db_fetch_object(db_query("SELECT * FROM {role} WHERE name = '%s'", $name));

    $this->assertTrue(isset($role->rid), t('Created role of name: @name, id: @rid', array('@name' => $name, '@rid' => (isset($role->rid) ? $role->rid : t('-n/a-')))), t('Role'));
    if ($role && !empty($role->rid)) {
      db_query("INSERT INTO {permission} (rid, perm) VALUES (%d, '%s')", $role->rid, implode(', ', $permissions));
      $count = count(explode(', ', db_result(db_query("SELECT perm FROM {permission} WHERE rid = %d", $role->rid))));
      $this->assertTrue($count == count($permissions), t('Created permissions: @perms', array('@perms' => implode(', ', $permissions))), t('Role'));
      return $role->rid;
    }
    else {
      return FALSE;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Check to make sure that the array of permissions are valid.
   *
   * @param $permissions
   *   Permissions to check.
   * @param $reset
   *   Reset cached available permissions.
   * @return
   *   TRUE or FALSE depending on whether the permissions are valid.
   */
  protected function checkPermissions(array $permissions, $reset = FALSE) {
    static $available;

    if (!isset($available) || $reset) {
      $available = module_invoke_all('perm');
    }

    $valid = TRUE;
    foreach ($permissions as $permission) {
      if (!in_array($permission, $available)) {
        $this->fail(t('Invalid permission %permission.', array('%permission' => $permission)), t('Role'));
        $valid = FALSE;
      }
    }
    return $valid;
  }

  /**
   * Log in a user with the internal browser.
   *
   * If a user is already logged in, then the current user is logged out before
   * logging in the specified user.
   *
   * Please note that neither the global $user nor the passed in user object is
   * populated with data of the logged in user. If you need full access to the
   * user object after logging in, it must be updated manually. If you also need
   * access to the plain-text password of the user (set by drupalCreateUser()),
   * e.g. to log in the same user again, then it must be re-assigned manually.
   * For example:
   * @code
   *   // Create a user.
   *   $account = $this->drupalCreateUser(array());
   *   $this->drupalLogin($account);
   *   // Load real user object.
   *   $pass_raw = $account->pass_raw;
   *   $account = user_load($account->uid);
   *   $account->pass_raw = $pass_raw;
   * @endcode
   *
   * @param $user
   *   User object representing the user to log in.
   *
   * @see drupalCreateUser()
   */
  protected function drupalLogin(stdClass $user) {
    if ($this->loggedInUser) {
      $this->drupalLogout();
    }

    $edit = array(
      'name' => $user->name, 
      'pass' => $user->pass_raw,
    );
    $this->drupalPost('user', $edit, t('Log in'));

    // If a "log out" link appears on the page, it is almost certainly because
    // the login was successful.
    $pass = $this->assertLink(t('Log out'), 0, t('User %name successfully logged in.', array('%name' => $user->name)), t('User login'));

    if ($pass) {
      $this->loggedInUser = $user;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Generate a token for the currently logged in user.
   */
  protected function drupalGetToken($value = '') {
    $private_key = drupal_get_private_key();
    return md5($this->session_id . $value . $private_key);
  }

  /*
   * Logs a user out of the internal browser, then check the login page to confirm logout.
   */
  protected function drupalLogout() {
    // Make a request to the logout page, and redirect to the user page, the
    // idea being if you were properly logged out you should be seeing a login
    // screen.
    $this->drupalGet('logout');
    $this->drupalGet('user');
    $pass = $this->assertField('name', t('Username field found.'), t('Logout'));
    $pass = $pass && $this->assertField('pass', t('Password field found.'), t('Logout'));

    if ($pass) {
      $this->loggedInUser = FALSE;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Generates a random database prefix, runs the install scripts on the
   * prefixed database and enable the specified modules. After installation
   * many caches are flushed and the internal browser is setup so that the
   * page requests will run on the new prefix. A temporary files directory
   * is created with the same name as the database prefix.
   *
   * @param ...
   *   List of modules to enable for the duration of the test. This can be
   *   either a single array or a variable number of string arguments.
   */
  protected function setUp() {
    global $user, $language, $conf;

    // Generate a temporary prefixed database to ensure that tests have a clean starting point.
    $this->databasePrefix = 'simpletest' . mt_rand(1000, 1000000);
    $db_prefix_new = is_array($GLOBALS['db_prefix']) ? $GLOBALS['db_prefix']['default'] : $GLOBALS['db_prefix'] . $this->databasePrefix;
    db_query("UPDATE {simpletest_test_id} SET last_prefix = '%s' WHERE test_id = %d", $db_prefix_new, $this->testId);

    // Store necessary current values before switching to prefixed database.
    $this->originalPrefix = $GLOBALS['db_prefix'];
    $this->originalLanguage = $language;
    $this->originalLanguageDefault = variable_get('language_default', (object) array('language' => 'en', 'name' => 'English', 'native' => 'English', 'direction' => 0, 'enabled' => 1, 'plurals' => 0, 'formula' => '', 'domain' => '', 'prefix' => '', 'weight' => 0, 'javascript' => ''));
    $this->originalFileDirectory = variable_get('file_directory_path', conf_path() . '/files');
    $this->originalProfile = variable_get('install_profile', 'default');
    $clean_url_original = variable_get('clean_url', 0);

    // Must reset locale here, since schema calls t(). (Drupal 6)
    if (module_exists('locale')) {
      $language = (object) array(
        'language' => 'en',
        'name' => 'English',
        'native' => 'English',
        'direction' => 0,
        'enabled' => 1,
        'plurals' => 0,
        'formula' => '',
        'domain' => '',
        'prefix' => '',
        'weight' => 0,
        'javascript' => '',
      );
      locale(NULL, NULL, TRUE);
    }

    // Workaround to insure we init the theme layer before going into prefixed
    // environment. (Drupal 6)
    $this->pass(t('Starting run with db_prefix %prefix', array('%prefix' => $db_prefix_new)), 'System');

    // Clone the current connection and replace the current prefix.
    $GLOBALS['db_prefix'] = $db_prefix_new;

    // Create test directory ahead of installation so fatal errors and debug
    // information can be logged during installation process.
    // Use temporary files directory with the same prefix as the database.
    $public_files_directory  = $this->originalFileDirectory . '/simpletest/' . substr($this->databasePrefix, 10);
    $temp_files_directory    = $public_files_directory . '/tmp';

    // Create the directories
    file_check_directory($public_files_directory, FILE_CREATE_DIRECTORY | FILE_MODIFY_PERMISSIONS);
    file_check_directory($temp_files_directory, FILE_CREATE_DIRECTORY);
    $this->generatedTestFiles = FALSE;

    // Log fatal errors.
    ini_set('log_errors', 1);
    ini_set('error_log', $public_files_directory . '/error.log');

    // Reset all statics and variables to perform tests in a clean environment.
    $conf = array();

    // Set the test information for use in other parts of Drupal.
    $test_info = &$GLOBALS['drupal_test_info'];
    $test_info['test_run_id'] = $this->databasePrefix;
    $test_info['in_child_site'] = FALSE;

    include_once './includes/install.inc';
    drupal_install_system();

    // Set path variables.
    variable_set('file_directory_path', $public_files_directory);
    variable_set('file_directory_temp', $temp_files_directory);

    // Include the testing profile.
    variable_set('install_profile', $this->profile);
    $profile_modules = drupal_verify_profile($this->profile, 'en');

    // Install the modules specified by the testing profile.
    drupal_install_modules($profile_modules);

    // Install modules needed for this test. This could have been passed in as
    // either a single array argument or a variable number of string arguments.
    // @todo Remove this compatibility layer in Drupal 8, and only accept
    // $modules as a single array argument.
    $modules = func_get_args();
    if (isset($modules[0]) && is_array($modules[0])) {
      $modules = $modules[0];
    }
    if ($modules) {
      drupal_install_modules($modules);
    }

    // Run the profile tasks.
    $task = 'profile';
    $function = $this->profile . '_profile_tasks';
    if (function_exists($function)) {
      $function($task, '');
    }

    // Reset/rebuild all data structures after enabling the modules.
    $this->resetAll();

    // Run cron once in that environment, as install.php does at the end of
    // the installation process.
    drupal_cron_run();

    // Log in with a clean $user.
    $this->originalUser = $user;
    session_save_session(FALSE);
    $user = user_load(array('uid' => 1));

    // Restore necessary variables.
    variable_set('install_task', 'done');
    variable_set('clean_url', $clean_url_original);
    variable_set('site_mail', 'simpletest@example.com');

    // Set up English language.
    unset($GLOBALS['conf']['language_default']);
    $language = language_default();

    // Use the test mail class instead of the default mail handler class.
    variable_set('smtp_library', drupal_get_path('module', 'simpletest') . '/simpletest.mail.inc');

    set_time_limit($this->timeLimit);
  }

  /**
   * Reset all data structures after having enabled new modules.
   *
   * This method is called by DrupalWebTestCase::setUp() after enabling
   * the requested modules. It must be called again when additional modules
   * are enabled later.
   */
  protected function resetAll() {
    // Rebuild caches.
    drupal_flush_all_caches();
    actions_synchronize();
    user_access(NULL, NULL, TRUE);

    // Reload global $conf array and permissions.
    $this->refreshVariables();
    $this->checkPermissions(array(), TRUE);

    // Reset statically cached schema for new database prefix.
    drupal_get_schema(NULL, TRUE);
  }

  /**
   * Refresh the in-memory set of variables. Useful after a page request is made
   * that changes a variable in a different thread.
   *
   * In other words calling a settings page with $this->drupalPost() with a changed
   * value would update a variable to reflect that change, but in the thread that
   * made the call (thread running the test) the changed variable would not be
   * picked up.
   *
   * This method clears the variables cache and loads a fresh copy from the database
   * to ensure that the most up-to-date set of variables is loaded.
   */
  protected function refreshVariables() {
    global $conf;
    cache_clear_all('variables', 'cache');
    $conf = variable_init();
  }

  /**
   * Delete created files and temporary files directory, delete the tables created by setUp(),
   * and reset the database prefix.
   */
  protected function tearDown() {
    global $user, $language;

    // In case a fatal error occured that was not in the test process read the
    // log to pick up any fatal errors.
    simpletest_log_read($this->testId, $this->databasePrefix, get_class($this), TRUE);

    $emailCount = count(variable_get('drupal_test_email_collector', array()));
    if ($emailCount) {
      $message = format_plural($emailCount, '1 e-mail was sent during this test.', '@count e-mails were sent during this test.');
      $this->pass($message, t('E-mail'));
    }

    // Delete temporary files directory.
    simpletest_file_unmanaged_delete_recursive($this->originalFileDirectory . '/simpletest/' . substr($this->databasePrefix, 10));

    // Remove all prefixed tables (all the tables in the schema).
    $schema = drupal_get_schema(NULL, TRUE);
    $ret = array();
    foreach ($schema as $name => $table) {
      db_drop_table($ret, $name);
    }

    // Get back to the original connection.
    $GLOBALS['db_prefix'] = $this->originalPrefix;

    // Return the user to the original one.
    $user = $this->originalUser;
    session_save_session(TRUE);

    // Bring back default language. (Drupal 6)
    if (module_exists('locale')) {
      drupal_init_language();
      locale(NULL, NULL, TRUE);
    }

    // Ensure that internal logged in variable and cURL options are reset.
    $this->loggedInUser = FALSE;
    $this->additionalCurlOptions = array();

    // Reload module list and implementations to ensure that test module hooks
    // aren't called after tests.
    module_list(TRUE, FALSE);
    module_implements('', FALSE, TRUE);

    // Rebuild caches.
    $this->refreshVariables();

    // Reset language.
    $language = $this->originalLanguage;
    if ($this->originalLanguageDefault) {
      $GLOBALS['conf']['language_default'] = $this->originalLanguageDefault;
    }

    // Close the CURL handler.
    $this->curlClose();
  }

  /**
   * Initializes the cURL connection.
   *
   * If the simpletest_httpauth_credentials variable is set, this function will
   * add HTTP authentication headers. This is necessary for testing sites that
   * are protected by login credentials from public access.
   * See the description of $curl_options for other options.
   */
  protected function curlInitialize() {
    global $base_url;

    if (!isset($this->curlHandle)) {
      $this->curlHandle = curl_init();
      $curl_options = array(
        CURLOPT_COOKIEJAR => $this->cookieFile, 
        CURLOPT_URL => $base_url, 
        CURLOPT_FOLLOWLOCATION => FALSE, 
        CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER => TRUE, 
        CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER => FALSE, // Required to make the tests run on https. 
        CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYHOST => FALSE, // Required to make the tests run on https. 
        CURLOPT_HEADERFUNCTION => array(&$this, 'curlHeaderCallback'), 
        CURLOPT_USERAGENT => $this->databasePrefix,
      );
      if (isset($this->httpauth_credentials)) {
        $curl_options[CURLOPT_HTTPAUTH] = $this->httpauth_method;
        $curl_options[CURLOPT_USERPWD] = $this->httpauth_credentials;
      }
      curl_setopt_array($this->curlHandle, $this->additionalCurlOptions + $curl_options);

      // By default, the child session name should be the same as the parent.
      $this->session_name = session_name();
    }
    // We set the user agent header on each request so as to use the current
    // time and a new uniqid.
    if (preg_match('/simpletest\d+/', $this->databasePrefix, $matches)) {
      curl_setopt($this->curlHandle, CURLOPT_USERAGENT, drupal_generate_test_ua($matches[0]));
    }
  }

  /**
   * Initializes and executes a cURL request.
   *
   * @param $curl_options
   *   An associative array of cURL options to set, where the keys are constants
   *   defined by the cURL library. For a list of valid options, see
   *   http://www.php.net/manual/function.curl-setopt.php
   * @param $redirect
   *   FALSE if this is an initial request, TRUE if this request is the result
   *   of a redirect.
   *
   * @return
   *   The content returned from the call to curl_exec().
   *
   * @see curlInitialize()
   */
  protected function curlExec($curl_options, $redirect = FALSE) {
    $this->curlInitialize();

    // cURL incorrectly handles URLs with a fragment by including the
    // fragment in the request to the server, causing some web servers
    // to reject the request citing "400 - Bad Request". To prevent
    // this, we strip the fragment from the request.
    // TODO: Remove this for Drupal 8, since fixed in curl 7.20.0.
    if (!empty($curl_options[CURLOPT_URL]) && strpos($curl_options[CURLOPT_URL], '#')) {
      $original_url = $curl_options[CURLOPT_URL];
      $curl_options[CURLOPT_URL] = strtok($curl_options[CURLOPT_URL], '#');
    }

    $url = empty($curl_options[CURLOPT_URL]) ? curl_getinfo($this->curlHandle, CURLINFO_EFFECTIVE_URL) : $curl_options[CURLOPT_URL];

    if (!empty($curl_options[CURLOPT_POST])) {
      // This is a fix for the Curl library to prevent Expect: 100-continue
      // headers in POST requests, that may cause unexpected HTTP response
      // codes from some webservers (like lighttpd that returns a 417 error
      // code). It is done by setting an empty "Expect" header field that is
      // not overwritten by Curl.
      $curl_options[CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER][] = 'Expect:';
    }
    curl_setopt_array($this->curlHandle, $this->additionalCurlOptions + $curl_options);

    if (!$redirect) {
      // Reset headers, the session ID and the redirect counter.
      $this->session_id = NULL;
      $this->headers = array();
      $this->redirect_count = 0;
    }

    $content = curl_exec($this->curlHandle);
    $status = curl_getinfo($this->curlHandle, CURLINFO_HTTP_CODE);

    // cURL incorrectly handles URLs with fragments, so instead of
    // letting cURL handle redirects we take of them ourselves to
    // to prevent fragments being sent to the web server as part
    // of the request.
    // TODO: Remove this for Drupal 8, since fixed in curl 7.20.0.
    if (in_array($status, array(300, 301, 302, 303, 305, 307)) && $this->redirect_count < variable_get('simpletest_maximum_redirects', 5)) {
      if ($this->drupalGetHeader('location')) {
        $this->redirect_count++;
        $curl_options = array();
        $curl_options[CURLOPT_URL] = $this->drupalGetHeader('location');
        $curl_options[CURLOPT_HTTPGET] = TRUE;
        return $this->curlExec($curl_options, TRUE);
      }
    }

    $this->drupalSetContent($content, isset($original_url) ? $original_url : curl_getinfo($this->curlHandle, CURLINFO_EFFECTIVE_URL));
    $message_vars = array(
      '!method' => !empty($curl_options[CURLOPT_NOBODY]) ? 'HEAD' : (empty($curl_options[CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS]) ? 'GET' : 'POST'), 
      '@url' => isset($original_url) ? $original_url : $url, 
      '@status' => $status, 
      '!length' => format_size(strlen($this->drupalGetContent())),
    );
    $message = t('!method @url returned @status (!length).', $message_vars);
    $this->assertTrue($this->drupalGetContent() !== FALSE, $message, t('Browser'));
    return $this->drupalGetContent();
  }

  /**
   * Reads headers and registers errors received from the tested site.
   *
   * @see _drupal_log_error().
   *
   * @param $curlHandler
   *   The cURL handler.
   * @param $header
   *   An header.
   */
  protected function curlHeaderCallback($curlHandler, $header) {
    $this->headers[] = $header;

    // Errors are being sent via X-Drupal-Assertion-* headers,
    // generated by _drupal_log_error() in the exact form required
    // by DrupalWebTestCase::error().
    if (preg_match('/^X-Drupal-Assertion-[0-9]+: (.*)$/', $header, $matches)) {
      // Call DrupalWebTestCase::error() with the parameters from the header.
      call_user_func_array(array(&$this, 'error'), unserialize(urldecode($matches[1])));
    }

    // Save cookies.
    if (preg_match('/^Set-Cookie: ' . preg_quote($this->session_name) . '=([a-z90-9]+)/', $header, $matches)) {
      if ($matches[1] != 'deleted') {
        $this->session_id = $matches[1];
      }
      else {
        $this->session_id = NULL;
      }
    }

    // This is required by cURL.
    return strlen($header);
  }

  /**
   * Close the cURL handler and unset the handler.
   */
  protected function curlClose() {
    if (isset($this->curlHandle)) {
      curl_close($this->curlHandle);
      unset($this->curlHandle);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Parse content returned from curlExec using DOM and SimpleXML.
   *
   * @return
   *   A SimpleXMLElement or FALSE on failure.
   */
  protected function parse() {
    if (!$this->elements) {
      // DOM can load HTML soup. But, HTML soup can throw warnings, suppress
      // them.
      $htmlDom = new DOMDocument();
      @$htmlDom->loadHTML($this->drupalGetContent());
      if ($htmlDom) {
        $this->pass(t('Valid HTML found on "@path"', array('@path' => $this->getUrl())), t('Browser'));
        // It's much easier to work with simplexml than DOM, luckily enough
        // we can just simply import our DOM tree.
        $this->elements = simplexml_import_dom($htmlDom);
      }
    }
    if (!$this->elements) {
      $this->fail(t('Parsed page successfully.'), t('Browser'));
    }

    return $this->elements;
  }

  /**
   * Retrieves a Drupal path or an absolute path.
   *
   * @param $path
   *   Drupal path or URL to load into internal browser
   * @param $options
   *   Options to be forwarded to url().
   * @param $headers
   *   An array containing additional HTTP request headers, each formatted as
   *   "name: value".
   * @return
   *   The retrieved HTML string, also available as $this->drupalGetContent()
   */
  protected function drupalGet($path, array $options = array(), array $headers = array()) {
    $options['absolute'] = TRUE;

    // We re-using a CURL connection here. If that connection still has certain
    // options set, it might change the GET into a POST. Make sure we clear out
    // previous options.
    $out = $this->curlExec(array(CURLOPT_HTTPGET => TRUE, CURLOPT_URL => url($path, $options), CURLOPT_NOBODY => FALSE, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER => $headers));
    $this->refreshVariables(); // Ensure that any changes to variables in the other thread are picked up.

    // Replace original page output with new output from redirected page(s).
    if ($new = $this->checkForMetaRefresh()) {
      $out = $new;
    }
    $this->verbose('GET request to: ' . $path .
                   '<hr />Ending URL: ' . $this->getUrl() .
                   '<hr />' . $out);
    return $out;
  }

  /**
   * Execute a POST request on a Drupal page.
   * It will be done as usual POST request with SimpleBrowser.
   *
   * @param $path
   *   Location of the post form. Either a Drupal path or an absolute path or
   *   NULL to post to the current page. For multi-stage forms you can set the
   *   path to NULL and have it post to the last received page. Example:
   *
   *   @code
   *   // First step in form.
   *   $edit = array(...);
   *   $this->drupalPost('some_url', $edit, t('Save'));
   *
   *   // Second step in form.
   *   $edit = array(...);
   *   $this->drupalPost(NULL, $edit, t('Save'));
   *   @endcode
   * @param  $edit
   *   Field data in an associative array. Changes the current input fields
   *   (where possible) to the values indicated. A checkbox can be set to
   *   TRUE to be checked and FALSE to be unchecked. Note that when a form
   *   contains file upload fields, other fields cannot start with the '@'
   *   character.
   *
   *   Multiple select fields can be set using name[] and setting each of the
   *   possible values. Example:
   *   @code
   *   $edit = array();
   *   $edit['name[]'] = array('value1', 'value2');
   *   @endcode
   * @param $submit
   *   Value of the submit button whose click is to be emulated. For example,
   *   t('Save'). The processing of the request depends on this value. For
   *   example, a form may have one button with the value t('Save') and another
   *   button with the value t('Delete'), and execute different code depending
   *   on which one is clicked.
   *
   *   This can also be set to NULL in order to emulate an Internet Explorer
   *   submission of a form with a single text field, and pressing ENTER in that
   *   textfield: under these conditions, no button information is added to the
   *   POST data.
   * @param $options
   *   Options to be forwarded to url().
   * @param $headers
   *   An array containing additional HTTP request headers, each formatted as
   *   "name: value".
   * @param $form_html_id
   *   (optional) HTML ID of the form to be submitted. On some pages
   *   there are many identical forms, so just using the value of the submit
   *   button is not enough. For example: 'trigger-node-presave-assign-form'.
   *   Note that this is not the Drupal $form_id, but rather the HTML ID of the
   *   form, which is typically the same thing but with hyphens replacing the
   *   underscores.
   * @param $extra_post
   *   (optional) A string of additional data to append to the POST submission.
   *   This can be used to add POST data for which there are no HTML fields, as
   *   is done by drupalPostAJAX(). This string is literally appended to the
   *   POST data, so it must already be urlencoded and contain a leading "&"
   *   (e.g., "&extra_var1=hello+world&extra_var2=you%26me").
   */
  protected function drupalPost($path, $edit, $submit, array $options = array(), array $headers = array(), $form_html_id = NULL, $extra_post = NULL) {
    $submit_matches = FALSE;
    if (isset($path)) {
      $this->drupalGet($path, $options);
    }
    if ($this->parse()) {
      $edit_save = $edit;
      // Let's iterate over all the forms.
      $xpath = "//form";
      if (!empty($form_html_id)) {
        $xpath .= "[@id='" . $form_html_id . "']";
      }
      $forms = $this->xpath($xpath);
      foreach ($forms as $form) {
        // We try to set the fields of this form as specified in $edit.
        $edit = $edit_save;
        $post = array();
        $upload = array();
        $submit_matches = $this->handleForm($post, $edit, $upload, $submit, $form);
        $action = isset($form['action']) ? $this->getAbsoluteUrl((string) $form['action']) : $this->getUrl();

        // We post only if we managed to handle every field in edit and the
        // submit button matches.
        if (!$edit && ($submit_matches || !isset($submit))) {
          $post_array = $post;
          if ($upload) {
            // TODO: cURL handles file uploads for us, but the implementation
            // is broken. This is a less than elegant workaround. Alternatives
            // are being explored at #253506.
            foreach ($upload as $key => $file) {
              $file = realpath($file);
              if ($file && is_file($file)) {
                $post[$key] = '@' . $file;
              }
            }
          }
          else {
            foreach ($post as $key => $value) {
              // Encode according to application/x-www-form-urlencoded
              // Both names and values needs to be urlencoded, according to
              // http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/interact/forms.html#h-17.13.4.1
              $post[$key] = urlencode($key) . '=' . urlencode($value);
            }
            $post = implode('&', $post) . $extra_post;
          }
          $out = $this->curlExec(array(CURLOPT_URL => $action, CURLOPT_POST => TRUE, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS => $post, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER => $headers));
          // Ensure that any changes to variables in the other thread are picked up.
          $this->refreshVariables();

          // Replace original page output with new output from redirected page(s).
          if ($new = $this->checkForMetaRefresh()) {
            $out = $new;
          }
          $this->verbose('POST request to: ' . $path .
                         '<hr />Ending URL: ' . $this->getUrl() .
                         '<hr />Fields: ' . highlight_string('<?php ' . var_export($post_array, TRUE), TRUE) .
                         '<hr />' . $out);
          return $out;
        }
      }
      // We have not found a form which contained all fields of $edit.
      foreach ($edit as $name => $value) {
        $this->fail(t('Failed to set field @name to @value', array('@name' => $name, '@value' => $value)));
      }
      if (isset($submit)) {
        $this->assertTrue($submit_matches, t('Found the @submit button', array('@submit' => $submit)));
      }
      $this->fail(t('Found the requested form fields at @path', array('@path' => $path)));
    }
  }

  /**
   * Runs cron in the Drupal installed by Simpletest.
   */
  protected function cronRun() {
    $this->drupalGet($GLOBALS['base_url'] . '/cron.php', array('external' => TRUE));
  }

  /**
   * Check for meta refresh tag and if found call drupalGet() recursively. This
   * function looks for the http-equiv attribute to be set to "Refresh"
   * and is case-sensitive.
   *
   * @return
   *   Either the new page content or FALSE.
   */
  protected function checkForMetaRefresh() {
    if (strpos($this->drupalGetContent(), '<meta ') && $this->parse()) {
      $refresh = $this->xpath('//meta[@http-equiv="Refresh"]');
      if (!empty($refresh)) {
        // Parse the content attribute of the meta tag for the format:
        // "[delay]: URL=[page_to_redirect_to]".
        if (preg_match('/\d+;\s*URL=(?P<url>.*)/i', $refresh[0]['content'], $match)) {
          return $this->drupalGet($this->getAbsoluteUrl(decode_entities($match['url'])));
        }
      }
    }
    return FALSE;
  }

  /**
   * Retrieves only the headers for a Drupal path or an absolute path.
   *
   * @param $path
   *   Drupal path or URL to load into internal browser
   * @param $options
   *   Options to be forwarded to url().
   * @param $headers
   *   An array containing additional HTTP request headers, each formatted as
   *   "name: value".
   * @return
   *   The retrieved headers, also available as $this->drupalGetContent()
   */
  protected function drupalHead($path, array $options = array(), array $headers = array()) {
    $options['absolute'] = TRUE;
    $out = $this->curlExec(array(CURLOPT_NOBODY => TRUE, CURLOPT_URL => url($path, $options), CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER => $headers));
    $this->refreshVariables(); // Ensure that any changes to variables in the other thread are picked up.
    return $out;
  }

  /**
   * Handle form input related to drupalPost(). Ensure that the specified fields
   * exist and attempt to create POST data in the correct manner for the particular
   * field type.
   *
   * @param $post
   *   Reference to array of post values.
   * @param $edit
   *   Reference to array of edit values to be checked against the form.
   * @param $submit
   *   Form submit button value.
   * @param $form
   *   Array of form elements.
   * @return
   *   Submit value matches a valid submit input in the form.
   */
  protected function handleForm(&$post, &$edit, &$upload, $submit, $form) {
    // Retrieve the form elements.
    $elements = $form->xpath('.//input[not(@disabled)]|.//textarea[not(@disabled)]|.//select[not(@disabled)]');
    $submit_matches = FALSE;
    foreach ($elements as $element) {
      // SimpleXML objects need string casting all the time.
      $name = (string) $element['name'];
      // This can either be the type of <input> or the name of the tag itself
      // for <select> or <textarea>.
      $type = isset($element['type']) ? (string) $element['type'] : $element->getName();
      $value = isset($element['value']) ? (string) $element['value'] : '';
      $done = FALSE;
      if (isset($edit[$name])) {
        switch ($type) {
          case 'text':
          case 'textarea':
          case 'hidden':
          case 'password':
            // In order to support PIFR's review of Drupal 7+ core patches, we
            // need to ensure that new core elements are supported here even if
            // they are not available for Drupal 6.
          case 'email':
          case 'url':
          case 'tel':
          case 'number':
          case 'range':
            $post[$name] = $edit[$name];
            unset($edit[$name]);
            break;
          case 'radio':
            if ($edit[$name] == $value) {
              $post[$name] = $edit[$name];
              unset($edit[$name]);
            }
            break;
          case 'checkbox':
            // To prevent checkbox from being checked.pass in a FALSE,
            // otherwise the checkbox will be set to its value regardless
            // of $edit.
            if ($edit[$name] === FALSE) {
              unset($edit[$name]);
              continue 2;
            }
            else {
              unset($edit[$name]);
              $post[$name] = $value;
            }
            break;
          case 'select':
            $new_value = $edit[$name];
            $options = $this->getAllOptions($element);
            if (is_array($new_value)) {
              // Multiple select box.
              if (!empty($new_value)) {
                $index = 0;
                $key = preg_replace('/\[\]$/', '', $name);
                foreach ($options as $option) {
                  $option_value = (string) $option['value'];
                  if (in_array($option_value, $new_value)) {
                    $post[$key . '[' . $index++ . ']'] = $option_value;
                    $done = TRUE;
                    unset($edit[$name]);
                  }
                }
              }
              else {
                // No options selected: do not include any POST data for the
                // element.
                $done = TRUE;
                unset($edit[$name]);
              }
            }
            else {
              // Single select box.
              foreach ($options as $option) {
                if ($new_value == $option['value']) {
                  $post[$name] = $new_value;
                  unset($edit[$name]);
                  $done = TRUE;
                  break;
                }
              }
            }
            break;
          case 'file':
            $upload[$name] = $edit[$name];
            unset($edit[$name]);
            break;
        }
      }
      if (!isset($post[$name]) && !$done) {
        switch ($type) {
          case 'textarea':
            $post[$name] = (string) $element;
            break;
          case 'select':
            $single = empty($element['multiple']);
            $first = TRUE;
            $index = 0;
            $key = preg_replace('/\[\]$/', '', $name);
            $options = $this->getAllOptions($element);
            foreach ($options as $option) {
              // For single select, we load the first option, if there is a
              // selected option that will overwrite it later.
              if ($option['selected'] || ($first && $single)) {
                $first = FALSE;
                if ($single) {
                  $post[$name] = (string) $option['value'];
                }
                else {
                  $post[$key . '[' . $index++ . ']'] = (string) $option['value'];
                }
              }
            }
            break;
          case 'file':
            break;
          case 'submit':
          case 'image':
            if (isset($submit) && $submit == $value) {
              $post[$name] = $value;
              $submit_matches = TRUE;
            }
            break;
          case 'radio':
          case 'checkbox':
            if (!isset($element['checked'])) {
              break;
            }
            // Deliberate no break.
          default:
            $post[$name] = $value;
        }
      }
    }
    return $submit_matches;
  }

  /**
   * Builds an XPath query.
   *
   * Builds an XPath query by replacing placeholders in the query by the value
   * of the arguments.
   *
   * XPath 1.0 (the version supported by libxml2, the underlying XML library
   * used by PHP) doesn't support any form of quotation. This function
   * simplifies the building of XPath expression.
   *
   * @param $xpath
   *   An XPath query, possibly with placeholders in the form ':name'.
   * @param $args
   *   An array of arguments with keys in the form ':name' matching the
   *   placeholders in the query. The values may be either strings or numeric
   *   values.
   * @return
   *   An XPath query with arguments replaced.
   */
  protected function buildXPathQuery($xpath, array $args = array()) {
    // Replace placeholders.
    foreach ($args as $placeholder => $value) {
      // XPath 1.0 doesn't support a way to escape single or double quotes in a
      // string literal. We split double quotes out of the string, and encode
      // them separately.
      if (is_string($value)) {
        // Explode the text at the quote characters.
        $parts = explode('"', $value);

        // Quote the parts.
        foreach ($parts as &$part) {
          $part = '"' . $part . '"';
        }

        // Return the string.
        $value = count($parts) > 1 ? 'concat(' . implode(', \'"\', ', $parts) . ')' : $parts[0];
      }
      $xpath = preg_replace('/' . preg_quote($placeholder) . '\b/', $value, $xpath);
    }
    return $xpath;
  }

  /**
   * Perform an xpath search on the contents of the internal browser. The search
   * is relative to the root element (HTML tag normally) of the page.
   *
   * @param $xpath
   *   The xpath string to use in the search.
   * @return
   *   The return value of the xpath search. For details on the xpath string
   *   format and return values see the SimpleXML documentation,
   *   http://us.php.net/manual/function.simplexml-element-xpath.php.
   */
  protected function xpath($xpath, array $arguments = array()) {
    if ($this->parse()) {
      $xpath = $this->buildXPathQuery($xpath, $arguments);
      $result = $this->elements->xpath($xpath);
      // Some combinations of PHP / libxml versions return an empty array
      // instead of the documented FALSE. Forcefully convert any falsish values
      // to an empty array to allow foreach(...) constructions.
      return $result ? $result : array();
    }
    else {
      return FALSE;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Get all option elements, including nested options, in a select.
   *
   * @param $element
   *   The element for which to get the options.
   * @return
   *   Option elements in select.
   */
  protected function getAllOptions(SimpleXMLElement $element) {
    $options = array();
    // Add all options items.
    foreach ($element->option as $option) {
      $options[] = $option;
    }

    // Search option group children.
    if (isset($element->optgroup)) {
      foreach ($element->optgroup as $group) {
        $options = array_merge($options, $this->getAllOptions($group));
      }
    }
    return $options;
  }

  /**
   * Pass if a link with the specified label is found, and optional with the
   * specified index.
   *
   * @param $label
   *   Text between the anchor tags.
   * @param $index
   *   Link position counting from zero.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to, defaults to 'Other'.
   * @return
   *   TRUE if the assertion succeeded, FALSE otherwise.
   */
  protected function assertLink($label, $index = 0, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    $links = $this->xpath('//a[normalize-space(text())=:label]', array(':label' => $label));
    $message = ($message ?  $message : t('Link with label %label found.', array('%label' => $label)));
    return $this->assert(isset($links[$index]), $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Pass if a link with the specified label is not found.
   *
   * @param $label
   *   Text between the anchor tags.
   * @param $index
   *   Link position counting from zero.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to, defaults to 'Other'.
   * @return
   *   TRUE if the assertion succeeded, FALSE otherwise.
   */
  protected function assertNoLink($label, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    $links = $this->xpath('//a[normalize-space(text())=:label]', array(':label' => $label));
    $message = ($message ?  $message : t('Link with label %label not found.', array('%label' => $label)));
    return $this->assert(empty($links), $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Pass if a link containing a given href (part) is found.
   *
   * @param $href
   *   The full or partial value of the 'href' attribute of the anchor tag.
   * @param $index
   *   Link position counting from zero.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to, defaults to 'Other'.
   *
   * @return
   *   TRUE if the assertion succeeded, FALSE otherwise.
   */
  protected function assertLinkByHref($href, $index = 0, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    $links = $this->xpath('//a[contains(@href, :href)]', array(':href' => $href));
    $message = ($message ?  $message : t('Link containing href %href found.', array('%href' => $href)));
    return $this->assert(isset($links[$index]), $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Pass if a link containing a given href (part) is not found.
   *
   * @param $href
   *   The full or partial value of the 'href' attribute of the anchor tag.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to, defaults to 'Other'.
   *
   * @return
   *   TRUE if the assertion succeeded, FALSE otherwise.
   */
  protected function assertNoLinkByHref($href, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    $links = $this->xpath('//a[contains(@href, :href)]', array(':href' => $href));
    $message = ($message ?  $message : t('No link containing href %href found.', array('%href' => $href)));
    return $this->assert(empty($links), $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Follows a link by name.
   *
   * Will click the first link found with this link text by default, or a
   * later one if an index is given. Match is case insensitive with
   * normalized space. The label is translated label. There is an assert
   * for successful click.
   *
   * @param $label
   *   Text between the anchor tags.
   * @param $index
   *   Link position counting from zero.
   * @return
   *   Page on success, or FALSE on failure.
   */
  protected function clickLink($label, $index = 0) {
    $url_before = $this->getUrl();
    $urls = $this->xpath('//a[normalize-space(text())=:label]', array(':label' => $label));

    if (isset($urls[$index])) {
      $url_target = $this->getAbsoluteUrl($urls[$index]['href']);
    }

    $this->assertTrue(isset($urls[$index]), t('Clicked link %label (@url_target) from @url_before', array('%label' => $label, '@url_target' => $url_target, '@url_before' => $url_before)), t('Browser'));

    if (isset($url_target)) {
      return $this->drupalGet($url_target);
    }
    return FALSE;
  }

  /**
   * Takes a path and returns an absolute path.
   *
   * @param $path
   *   A path from the internal browser content.
   * @return
   *   The $path with $base_url prepended, if necessary.
   */
  protected function getAbsoluteUrl($path) {
    global $base_url, $base_path;

    $parts = parse_url($path);
    if (empty($parts['host'])) {
      // Ensure that we have a string (and no xpath object).
      $path = (string) $path;
      // Strip $base_path, if existent.
      $length = strlen($base_path);
      if (substr($path, 0, $length) === $base_path) {
        $path = substr($path, $length);
      }
      // Ensure that we have an absolute path.
      if ($path[0] !== '/') {
        $path = '/' . $path;
      }
      // Finally, prepend the $base_url.
      $path = $base_url . $path;
    }
    return $path;
  }

  /**
   * Get the current url from the cURL handler.
   *
   * @return
   *   The current url.
   */
  protected function getUrl() {
    return $this->url;
  }

  /**
   * Gets the HTTP response headers of the requested page. Normally we are only
   * interested in the headers returned by the last request. However, if a page
   * is redirected or HTTP authentication is in use, multiple requests will be
   * required to retrieve the page. Headers from all requests may be requested
   * by passing TRUE to this function.
   *
   * @param $all_requests
   *   Boolean value specifying whether to return headers from all requests
   *   instead of just the last request. Defaults to FALSE.
   * @return
   *   A name/value array if headers from only the last request are requested.
   *   If headers from all requests are requested, an array of name/value
   *   arrays, one for each request.
   *
   *   The pseudonym ":status" is used for the HTTP status line.
   *
   *   Values for duplicate headers are stored as a single comma-separated list.
   */
  protected function drupalGetHeaders($all_requests = FALSE) {
    $request = 0;
    $headers = array($request => array());
    foreach ($this->headers as $header) {
      $header = trim($header);
      if ($header === '') {
        $request++;
      }
      else {
        if (strpos($header, 'HTTP/') === 0) {
          $name = ':status';
          $value = $header;
        }
        else {
          list($name, $value) = explode(':', $header, 2);
          $name = strtolower($name);
        }
        if (isset($headers[$request][$name])) {
          $headers[$request][$name] .= ',' . trim($value);
        }
        else {
          $headers[$request][$name] = trim($value);
        }
      }
    }
    if (!$all_requests) {
      $headers = array_pop($headers);
    }
    return $headers;
  }

  /**
   * Gets the value of an HTTP response header. If multiple requests were
   * required to retrieve the page, only the headers from the last request will
   * be checked by default. However, if TRUE is passed as the second argument,
   * all requests will be processed from last to first until the header is
   * found.
   *
   * @param $name
   *   The name of the header to retrieve. Names are case-insensitive (see RFC
   *   2616 section 4.2).
   * @param $all_requests
   *   Boolean value specifying whether to check all requests if the header is
   *   not found in the last request. Defaults to FALSE.
   * @return
   *   The HTTP header value or FALSE if not found.
   */
  protected function drupalGetHeader($name, $all_requests = FALSE) {
    $name = strtolower($name);
    $header = FALSE;
    if ($all_requests) {
      foreach (array_reverse($this->drupalGetHeaders(TRUE)) as $headers) {
        if (isset($headers[$name])) {
          $header = $headers[$name];
          break;
        }
      }
    }
    else {
      $headers = $this->drupalGetHeaders();
      if (isset($headers[$name])) {
        $header = $headers[$name];
      }
    }
    return $header;
  }

  /**
   * Gets the current raw HTML of requested page.
   */
  protected function drupalGetContent() {
    return $this->content;
  }

  /**
   * Gets the value of the Drupal.settings JavaScript variable for the currently loaded page.
   */
  protected function drupalGetSettings() {
    return $this->drupalSettings;
  }

  /**
   * Gets an array containing all e-mails sent during this test case.
   *
   * @param $filter
   *   An array containing key/value pairs used to filter the e-mails that are returned.
   * @return
   *   An array containing e-mail messages captured during the current test.
   */
  protected function drupalGetMails($filter = array()) {
    $captured_emails = variable_get('drupal_test_email_collector', array());
    $filtered_emails = array();

    foreach ($captured_emails as $message) {
      foreach ($filter as $key => $value) {
        if ((!isset($message[$key]) || $message[$key] != $value) && (!isset($message['params'][$key]) || $message['params'][$key] != $value)) {
          continue 2;
        }
      }
      $filtered_emails[] = $message;
    }

    return $filtered_emails;
  }

  /**
   * Sets the raw HTML content. This can be useful when a page has been fetched
   * outside of the internal browser and assertions need to be made on the
   * returned page.
   *
   * A good example would be when testing drupal_http_request(). After fetching
   * the page the content can be set and page elements can be checked to ensure
   * that the function worked properly.
   */
  protected function drupalSetContent($content, $url = 'internal:') {
    $this->content = $content;
    $this->url = $url;
    $this->plainTextContent = FALSE;
    $this->elements = FALSE;
    $this->drupalSettings = array();
    //if (preg_match('/jQuery\.extend\(Drupal\.settings, (.*?)\);/', $content, $matches)) {
//  $this->drupalSettings = drupal_json_decode($matches[1]);
    //}
  }

  /**
   * Sets the value of the Drupal.settings JavaScript variable for the currently loaded page.
   */
  protected function drupalSetSettings($settings) {
    $this->drupalSettings = $settings;
  }

  /**
   * Pass if the internal browser's URL matches the given path.
   *
   * @param $path
   *   The expected system path.
   * @param $options
   *   (optional) Any additional options to pass for $path to url().
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to, defaults to 'Other'.
   *
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertUrl($path, array $options = array(), $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    if (!$message) {
      $message = t('Current URL is @url.', array(
        '@url' => var_export(url($path, $options), TRUE),
      ));
    }
    $options['absolute'] = TRUE;
    return $this->assertEqual($this->getUrl(), url($path, $options), $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Pass if the raw text IS found on the loaded page, fail otherwise. Raw text
   * refers to the raw HTML that the page generated.
   *
   * @param $raw
   *   Raw (HTML) string to look for.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to, defaults to 'Other'.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertRaw($raw, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    if (!$message) {
      $message = t('Raw "@raw" found', array('@raw' => $raw));
    }
    return $this->assert(strpos($this->drupalGetContent(), $raw) !== FALSE, $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Pass if the raw text is NOT found on the loaded page, fail otherwise. Raw text
   * refers to the raw HTML that the page generated.
   *
   * @param $raw
   *   Raw (HTML) string to look for.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to, defaults to 'Other'.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertNoRaw($raw, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    if (!$message) {
      $message = t('Raw "@raw" not found', array('@raw' => $raw));
    }
    return $this->assert(strpos($this->drupalGetContent(), $raw) === FALSE, $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Pass if the text IS found on the text version of the page. The text version
   * is the equivalent of what a user would see when viewing through a web browser.
   * In other words the HTML has been filtered out of the contents.
   *
   * @param $text
   *   Plain text to look for.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to, defaults to 'Other'.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertText($text, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    return $this->assertTextHelper($text, $message, $group, FALSE);
  }

  /**
   * Pass if the text is NOT found on the text version of the page. The text version
   * is the equivalent of what a user would see when viewing through a web browser.
   * In other words the HTML has been filtered out of the contents.
   *
   * @param $text
   *   Plain text to look for.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to, defaults to 'Other'.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertNoText($text, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    return $this->assertTextHelper($text, $message, $group, TRUE);
  }

  /**
   * Helper for assertText and assertNoText.
   *
   * It is not recommended to call this function directly.
   *
   * @param $text
   *   Plain text to look for.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to.
   * @param $not_exists
   *   TRUE if this text should not exist, FALSE if it should.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertTextHelper($text, $message = '', $group, $not_exists) {
    if ($this->plainTextContent === FALSE) {
      $this->plainTextContent = filter_xss($this->drupalGetContent(), array());
    }
    if (!$message) {
      $message = !$not_exists ? t('"@text" found', array('@text' => $text)) : t('"@text" not found', array('@text' => $text));
    }
    return $this->assert($not_exists == (strpos($this->plainTextContent, $text) === FALSE), $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Pass if the text is found ONLY ONCE on the text version of the page.
   *
   * The text version is the equivalent of what a user would see when viewing
   * through a web browser. In other words the HTML has been filtered out of
   * the contents.
   *
   * @param $text
   *   Plain text to look for.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to, defaults to 'Other'.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertUniqueText($text, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    return $this->assertUniqueTextHelper($text, $message, $group, TRUE);
  }

  /**
   * Pass if the text is found MORE THAN ONCE on the text version of the page.
   *
   * The text version is the equivalent of what a user would see when viewing
   * through a web browser. In other words the HTML has been filtered out of
   * the contents.
   *
   * @param $text
   *   Plain text to look for.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to, defaults to 'Other'.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertNoUniqueText($text, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    return $this->assertUniqueTextHelper($text, $message, $group, FALSE);
  }

  /**
   * Helper for assertUniqueText and assertNoUniqueText.
   *
   * It is not recommended to call this function directly.
   *
   * @param $text
   *   Plain text to look for.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to.
   * @param $be_unique
   *   TRUE if this text should be found only once, FALSE if it should be found more than once.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertUniqueTextHelper($text, $message = '', $group, $be_unique) {
    if ($this->plainTextContent === FALSE) {
      $this->plainTextContent = filter_xss($this->drupalGetContent(), array());
    }
    if (!$message) {
      $message = '"' . $text . '"' . ($be_unique ? ' found only once' : ' found more than once');
    }
    $first_occurance = strpos($this->plainTextContent, $text);
    if ($first_occurance === FALSE) {
      return $this->assert(FALSE, $message, $group);
    }
    $offset = $first_occurance + strlen($text);
    $second_occurance = strpos($this->plainTextContent, $text, $offset);
    return $this->assert($be_unique == ($second_occurance === FALSE), $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Will trigger a pass if the Perl regex pattern is found in the raw content.
   *
   * @param $pattern
   *   Perl regex to look for including the regex delimiters.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertPattern($pattern, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    if (!$message) {
      $message = t('Pattern "@pattern" found', array('@pattern' => $pattern));
    }
    return $this->assert((bool) preg_match($pattern, $this->drupalGetContent()), $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Will trigger a pass if the perl regex pattern is not present in raw content.
   *
   * @param $pattern
   *   Perl regex to look for including the regex delimiters.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertNoPattern($pattern, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    if (!$message) {
      $message = t('Pattern "@pattern" not found', array('@pattern' => $pattern));
    }
    return $this->assert(!preg_match($pattern, $this->drupalGetContent()), $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Pass if the page title is the given string.
   *
   * @param $title
   *   The string the title should be.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertTitle($title, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    $actual = (string) current($this->xpath('//title'));
    if (!$message) {
      $message = t('Page title @actual is equal to @expected.', array(
        '@actual' => var_export($actual, TRUE), 
        '@expected' => var_export($title, TRUE),
      ));
    }
    return $this->assertEqual($actual, $title, $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Pass if the page title is not the given string.
   *
   * @param $title
   *   The string the title should not be.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertNoTitle($title, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    $actual = (string) current($this->xpath('//title'));
    if (!$message) {
      $message = t('Page title @actual is not equal to @unexpected.', array(
        '@actual' => var_export($actual, TRUE), 
        '@unexpected' => var_export($title, TRUE),
      ));
    }
    return $this->assertNotEqual($actual, $title, $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that a field exists in the current page by the given XPath.
   *
   * @param $xpath
   *   XPath used to find the field.
   * @param $value
   *   (optional) Value of the field to assert.
   * @param $message
   *   (optional) Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   (optional) The group this message belongs to.
   *
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertFieldByXPath($xpath, $value = NULL, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    $fields = $this->xpath($xpath);

    // If value specified then check array for match.
    $found = TRUE;
    if (isset($value)) {
      $found = FALSE;
      if ($fields) {
        foreach ($fields as $field) {
          if (isset($field['value']) && $field['value'] == $value) {
            // Input element with correct value.
            $found = TRUE;
          }
          elseif (isset($field->option)) {
            // Select element found.
            if ($this->getSelectedItem($field) == $value) {
              $found = TRUE;
            }
            else {
              // No item selected so use first item.
              $items = $this->getAllOptions($field);
              if (!empty($items) && $items[0]['value'] == $value) {
                $found = TRUE;
              }
            }
          }
          elseif ((string) $field == $value) {
            // Text area with correct text.
            $found = TRUE;
          }
        }
      }
    }
    return $this->assertTrue($fields && $found, $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Get the selected value from a select field.
   *
   * @param $element
   *   SimpleXMLElement select element.
   * @return
   *   The selected value or FALSE.
   */
  protected function getSelectedItem(SimpleXMLElement $element) {
    foreach ($element->children() as $item) {
      if (isset($item['selected'])) {
        return $item['value'];
      }
      elseif ($item->getName() == 'optgroup') {
        if ($value = $this->getSelectedItem($item)) {
          return $value;
        }
      }
    }
    return FALSE;
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that a field does not exist in the current page by the given XPath.
   *
   * @param $xpath
   *   XPath used to find the field.
   * @param $value
   *   (optional) Value of the field to assert.
   * @param $message
   *   (optional) Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   (optional) The group this message belongs to.
   *
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertNoFieldByXPath($xpath, $value = NULL, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    $fields = $this->xpath($xpath);

    // If value specified then check array for match.
    $found = TRUE;
    if (isset($value)) {
      $found = FALSE;
      if ($fields) {
        foreach ($fields as $field) {
          if ($field['value'] == $value) {
            $found = TRUE;
          }
        }
      }
    }
    return $this->assertFalse($fields && $found, $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that a field exists in the current page with the given name and value.
   *
   * @param $name
   *   Name of field to assert.
   * @param $value
   *   Value of the field to assert.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertFieldByName($name, $value = '', $message = '') {
    return $this->assertFieldByXPath($this->constructFieldXpath('name', $name), $value, $message ? $message : t('Found field by name @name', array('@name' => $name)), t('Browser'));
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that a field does not exist with the given name and value.
   *
   * @param $name
   *   Name of field to assert.
   * @param $value
   *   Value of the field to assert.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertNoFieldByName($name, $value = '', $message = '') {
    return $this->assertNoFieldByXPath($this->constructFieldXpath('name', $name), $value, $message ? $message : t('Did not find field by name @name', array('@name' => $name)), t('Browser'));
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that a field exists in the current page with the given id and value.
   *
   * @param $id
   *   Id of field to assert.
   * @param $value
   *   Value of the field to assert.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertFieldById($id, $value = '', $message = '') {
    return $this->assertFieldByXPath($this->constructFieldXpath('id', $id), $value, $message ? $message : t('Found field by id @id', array('@id' => $id)), t('Browser'));
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that a field does not exist with the given id and value.
   *
   * @param $id
   *   Id of field to assert.
   * @param $value
   *   Value of the field to assert.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertNoFieldById($id, $value = '', $message = '') {
    return $this->assertNoFieldByXPath($this->constructFieldXpath('id', $id), $value, $message ? $message : t('Did not find field by id @id', array('@id' => $id)), t('Browser'));
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that a checkbox field in the current page is checked.
   *
   * @param $id
   *   Id of field to assert.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertFieldChecked($id, $message = '') {
    $elements = $this->xpath('//input[@id=:id]', array(':id' => $id));
    return $this->assertTrue(isset($elements[0]) && !empty($elements[0]['checked']), $message ? $message : t('Checkbox field @id is checked.', array('@id' => $id)), t('Browser'));
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that a checkbox field in the current page is not checked.
   *
   * @param $id
   *   Id of field to assert.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertNoFieldChecked($id, $message = '') {
    $elements = $this->xpath('//input[@id=:id]', array(':id' => $id));
    return $this->assertTrue(isset($elements[0]) && empty($elements[0]['checked']), $message ? $message : t('Checkbox field @id is not checked.', array('@id' => $id)), t('Browser'));
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that a select option in the current page is checked.
   *
   * @param $id
   *   Id of select field to assert.
   * @param $option
   *   Option to assert.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   *
   * @todo $id is unusable. Replace with $name.
   */
  protected function assertOptionSelected($id, $option, $message = '') {
    $elements = $this->xpath('//select[@id=:id]//option[@value=:option]', array(':id' => $id, ':option' => $option));
    return $this->assertTrue(isset($elements[0]) && !empty($elements[0]['selected']), $message ? $message : t('Option @option for field @id is selected.', array('@option' => $option, '@id' => $id)), t('Browser'));
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that a select option in the current page is not checked.
   *
   * @param $id
   *   Id of select field to assert.
   * @param $option
   *   Option to assert.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertNoOptionSelected($id, $option, $message = '') {
    $elements = $this->xpath('//select[@id=:id]//option[@value=:option]', array(':id' => $id, ':option' => $option));
    return $this->assertTrue(isset($elements[0]) && empty($elements[0]['selected']), $message ? $message : t('Option @option for field @id is not selected.', array('@option' => $option, '@id' => $id)), t('Browser'));
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that a field exists with the given name or id.
   *
   * @param $field
   *   Name or id of field to assert.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertField($field, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    return $this->assertFieldByXPath($this->constructFieldXpath('name', $field) . '|' . $this->constructFieldXpath('id', $field), NULL, $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that a field does not exist with the given name or id.
   *
   * @param $field
   *   Name or id of field to assert.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertNoField($field, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    return $this->assertNoFieldByXPath($this->constructFieldXpath('name', $field) . '|' . $this->constructFieldXpath('id', $field), NULL, $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that each HTML ID is used for just a single element.
   *
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @param $group
   *   The group this message belongs to.
   * @param $ids_to_skip
   *   An optional array of ids to skip when checking for duplicates. It is
   *   always a bug to have duplicate HTML IDs, so this parameter is to enable
   *   incremental fixing of core code. Whenever a test passes this parameter,
   *   it should add a "todo" comment above the call to this function explaining
   *   the legacy bug that the test wishes to ignore and including a link to an
   *   issue that is working to fix that legacy bug.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertNoDuplicateIds($message = '', $group = 'Other', $ids_to_skip = array()) {
    $status = TRUE;
    foreach ($this->xpath('//*[@id]') as $element) {
      $id = (string) $element['id'];
      if (isset($seen_ids[$id]) && !in_array($id, $ids_to_skip)) {
        $this->fail(t('The HTML ID %id is unique.', array('%id' => $id)), $group);
        $status = FALSE;
      }
      $seen_ids[$id] = TRUE;
    }
    return $this->assert($status, $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Helper function: construct an XPath for the given set of attributes and value.
   *
   * @param $attribute
   *   Field attributes.
   * @param $value
   *   Value of field.
   * @return
   *   XPath for specified values.
   */
  protected function constructFieldXpath($attribute, $value) {
    $xpath = '//textarea[@' . $attribute . '=:value]|//input[@' . $attribute . '=:value]|//select[@' . $attribute . '=:value]';
    return $this->buildXPathQuery($xpath, array(':value' => $value));
  }

  /**
   * Asserts the page responds with the specified response code.
   *
   * @param $code
   *   Response code. For example 200 is a successful page request. For a list
   *   of all codes see http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec10.html.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   * @return
   *   Assertion result.
   */
  protected function assertResponse($code, $message = '') {
    $curl_code = curl_getinfo($this->curlHandle, CURLINFO_HTTP_CODE);
    $match = is_array($code) ? in_array($curl_code, $code) : $curl_code == $code;
    return $this->assertTrue($match, $message ? $message : t('HTTP response expected !code, actual !curl_code', array('!code' => $code, '!curl_code' => $curl_code)), t('Browser'));
  }

  /**
   * Asserts the page did not return the specified response code.
   *
   * @param $code
   *   Response code. For example 200 is a successful page request. For a list
   *   of all codes see http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec10.html.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   *
   * @return
   *   Assertion result.
   */
  protected function assertNoResponse($code, $message = '') {
    $curl_code = curl_getinfo($this->curlHandle, CURLINFO_HTTP_CODE);
    $match = is_array($code) ? in_array($curl_code, $code) : $curl_code == $code;
    return $this->assertFalse($match, $message ? $message : t('HTTP response not expected !code, actual !curl_code', array('!code' => $code, '!curl_code' => $curl_code)), t('Browser'));
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that the most recently sent e-mail message has the given value.
   *
   * The field in $name must have the content described in $value.
   *
   * @param $name
   *   Name of field or message property to assert. Examples: subject, body, id, ...
   * @param $value
   *   Value of the field to assert.
   * @param $message
   *   Message to display.
   *
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertMail($name, $value = '', $message = '') {
    $captured_emails = variable_get('drupal_test_email_collector', array());
    $email = end($captured_emails);
    return $this->assertTrue($email && (isset($email[$name]) && $email[$name] == $value || isset($email['params'][$name]) && $email['params'][$name] == $value), $message, t('E-mail'));
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that the most recently sent e-mail message has the string in it.
   *
   * @param $field_name
   *   Name of field or message property to assert: subject, body, id, ...
   * @param $string
   *   String to search for.
   * @param $email_depth
   *   Number of emails to search for string, starting with most recent.
   *
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertMailString($field_name, $string, $email_depth) {
    $mails = $this->drupalGetMails();
    $string_found = FALSE;
    for ($i = sizeof($mails) -1; $i >= sizeof($mails) - $email_depth && $i >= 0; $i--) {
      $mail = $mails[$i];
      // Normalize whitespace, as we don't know what the mail system might have
      // done. Any run of whitespace becomes a single space.
      $normalized_mail = preg_replace('/\s+/', ' ', $mail[$field_name]);
      $normalized_string = preg_replace('/\s+/', ' ', $string);
      $string_found = (FALSE !== strpos($normalized_mail, $normalized_string));
      if ($string_found) {
        break;
      }
    }
    return $this->assertTrue($string_found, t('Expected text found in @field of email message: "@expected".', array('@field' => $field_name, '@expected' => $string)));
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that the most recently sent e-mail message has the pattern in it.
   *
   * @param $field_name
   *   Name of field or message property to assert: subject, body, id, ...
   * @param $regex
   *   Pattern to search for.
   *
   * @return
   *   TRUE on pass, FALSE on fail.
   */
  protected function assertMailPattern($field_name, $regex, $message) {
    $mails = $this->drupalGetMails();
    $mail = end($mails);
    $regex_found = preg_match("/$regex/", $mail[$field_name]);
    return $this->assertTrue($regex_found, t('Expected text found in @field of email message: "@expected".', array('@field' => $field_name, '@expected' => $regex)));
  }

  /**
   * Outputs to verbose the most recent $count emails sent.
   *
   * @param $count
   *   Optional number of emails to output.
   */
  protected function verboseEmail($count = 1) {
    $mails = $this->drupalGetMails();
    for ($i = sizeof($mails) -1; $i >= sizeof($mails) - $count && $i >= 0; $i--) {
      $mail = $mails[$i];
      $this->verbose(t('Email:') . '<pre>' . print_r($mail, TRUE) . '</pre>');
    }
  }
}